Japanese forests are very diverse and include:
boreal forests of evergreen conifers (e.g., Ezo spruce, Sakhalin firs) as well as birch and larch trees;
temperate deciduous broad-leaf forests of maple, oak and beech;
warm temperate evergreen broadleaf forests of camphor, Japanese evergreen (shii and kashi ) oak, holly, camellia, bamboo, katsura; as well as
subtropical palms and mangrove vegetation.
The Shirakami Sanchi region in the north of Honshu, a UNESCO World Heritage site, consists of about 130,000 hectares of primeval beech forests. It is the largest beech forest in the world with an eco-diversity of about 500 species of vegetation. Yakushima Island, another World Natural Heritage site, is an island south of Kyushu also enjoys an unusually wide variety of tree species, from subtropical evergreen trees at sea level to sub-arctic plants in the inland mountainous region. Most outstanding however, are the ancient yakusugi trees (cedars native to Yakushima) that are the fifth largest trees in the world. Oldest of these is the Jomon Cedar which is estimated to be at least more than 2,500 years old, and possibly as old as 7,200 years old when its size and circumference of 16.4 meters is considered.
The traditional rural satoyama-rin landscape of semi-managed coppice forests is composed of a mosaic of many elements, such as farmland, grassland and forest with a high diversity of plant communities.
Subarctic tundra biome
Flowers, lichen, moss, pine and birch, shrubbery, Siberian subarctic animals may be found on the subarctic tundra landscapes of Hokkaido and the northern islands.
Alpine tundra biome
Alpine bluegrass, alpine plants (e.g., komakusa ), ptarmigan, grouse, pika, and eagle may be seen on the country’s higher alpine slopes.
Coastal desert biome
Thick foliage flora with good water retention and roots that are close to surface of soil may be found in coastal dune areas such as the Tottori sand dunes.